Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers.
(a) Applicability. This policy shall apply to proceedings in which the Board, in exercising its regulatory powers with respect to air carriers and foreign air carriers, is required to determine whether carriers have engaged in unfair or deceptive practices, or unfair methods of competition. The standards herein shall not be construed to supersede any action previously taken by the Board in a particular proceeding dealing with the subject matter of this statement, but to the extent not inconsistent therewith shall provide standards which supplement, or implement such specific Board action. The limitation of this policy statement to certain affiliated carriers should not be construed as an indication that the Board will permit other carriers to pass off by means of activities which are inconsistent with the minimum safeguards set forth in paragraph (c) of this section. In such cases the Board may determine in an adjudicatory proceeding that the activities engaged in have a tendency to pass off and constitute an unfair or deceptive practice or an unfair method of competition.
(b) Definition. For the purpose of this statement, the term affiliation, as between an air carrier and a foreign air carrier, shall mean that one of the carriers directly or indirectly has one of the following relationships to the other:
(1) Owns or controls 10 percent or more of the securities of the other, with or without an accompanying power to vote;
(2) Is in control of the other within the meaning of section 408 of the Act;
(3) Has any of the interlocking relationships described in section 409 of the Act;
(4) Is jointly controlled with the other carrier, directly or indirectly by a third person;
(5) Provides general agency services for the other carrier.
For the purpose of this statement, general agency services shall mean services performed under an agreement between an air carrier and a foreign air carrier which provides for the general representation of one by the other in a specified area or point, in relation to services such as the following: Solicitation and sale of passenger, express, and cargo transportation; airport transportation and hotel accommodations; local advertising and publicity, local sales offices; passenger services; local government representation; purchase, lease or other acquisition of equipment; or aircraft and transit services, aircraft inspection, aircraft dispatch.
(c) Minimum safeguards. The minimum safeguards which the Board will consider as adequate to foreclose passing off by affiliated carriers are as follows:
(1) An air carrier and any affiliated foreign air carrier shall not engage in joint public relations activities at points served by both carriers which tend to pass off the services of one carrier as the services of the other carrier or as part of a unified system of which each is a part;
(2) Where one affiliated carrier provides general agency services for the other carrier, at points served by both carriers, it shall specifically identify all flights of the other carrier as flights of that carrier without reference to any relationship to the carrier performing the agency services;
(3) All forms of display (including aircraft insignia), scheduled publications, advertising, or printed matter employed by affiliated carriers shall not state or imply that the services of either carrier are performed in common with the other carrier or as part of a single system. In cases where it is necessary to indicate that any agency service is performed by one affiliated carrier for the other, the references to the carrier performing the agency should be sufficiently subordinated to the name of the other carrier as to emphasize the limited role of the agent;
(4) Telephone facilities at points served by both carriers should preserve the identity of the individual carriers;
(5) Where joint traffic or sales facilities are maintained by affiliated carriers, the separate identity of each carrier should be maintained by reasonably comparable use of display advertising, desk-space, personnel uniforms, and other facilities and activities;
(6) Where one carrier sells time payment tickets for travel over the other carrier (except interline travel), the application form should identify the carrier performing the transportation;
(7) The respective personnel of the affiliated carriers shall preserve the individual identity of the respective carriers in all public dealings.
(d) Unfair and deceptive practice. It is the policy of the Board to regard any joint activity of an affiliated air carrier and a foreign air carrier as an unfair or deceptive practice or unfair method of competition where such joint activity does not satisfy the minimum safeguards enumerated in the preceding subsection.
(e) Exceptions. Exceptions to a safeguard set forth in paragraph (c) of this section may be recognized for activities in a foreign country if the Board finds that special circumstances pertaining to the country render the safeguard inappropriate. Exceptions on other grounds may be recognized pursuant to § 399.4.
[PS-29, 30 FR 13781, Oct. 29, 1965]