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§ 25.1093
Induction system icing protection.
(a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction system must have means to prevent and eliminate icing. Unless this is done by other means, it must be shown that, in air free of visible moisture at a temperature of 30 F., each airplane with altitude engines using—
(1) Conventional venturi carburetors have a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 120 F. with the engine at 60 percent of maximum continuous power; or
(2) Carburetors tending to reduce the probability of ice formation has a preheater that can provide a heat rise of 100 °F. with the engine at 60 percent of maximum continuous power.
(b) Turbine engines. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, each engine, with all icing protection systems operating, must:
(1) Operate throughout its flight power range, including the minimum descent idling speeds, in the icing conditions defined in Appendices C and O of this part, and Appendix D of part 33 of this chapter, and in falling and blowing snow within the limitations established for the airplane for such operation, without the accumulation of ice on the engine, inlet system components, or airframe components that would do any of the following:
(i) Adversely affect installed engine operation or cause a sustained loss of power or thrust; or an unacceptable increase in gas path operating temperature; or an airframe/engine incompatibility; or
(ii) Result in unacceptable temporary power loss or engine damage; or
(iii) Cause a stall, surge, or flameout or loss of engine controllability (for example, rollback).
(2) Operate at ground idle speed for a minimum of 30 minutes on the ground in the following icing conditions shown in Table 1 of this section, unless replaced by similar test conditions that are more critical. These conditions must be demonstrated with the available air bleed for icing protection at its critical condition, without adverse effect, followed by an acceleration to takeoff power or thrust in accordance with the procedures defined in the airplane flight manual. During the idle operation, the engine may be run up periodically to a moderate power or thrust setting in a manner acceptable to the Administrator. Analysis may be used to show ambient temperatures below the tested temperature are less critical. The applicant must document the engine run-up procedure (including the maximum time interval between run-ups from idle, run-up power setting, and duration at power), the associated minimum ambient temperature, and the maximum time interval. These conditions must be used in the analysis that establishes the airplane operating limitations in accordance with § 25.1521.
(3) For the purposes of this section, the icing conditions defined in appendix O of this part, including the conditions specified in Condition 3 of Table 1 of this section, are not applicable to airplanes with a maximum takeoff weight equal to or greater than 60,000 pounds.
Table 1—Icing Conditions for Ground Tests
Total air temperature
Water concentration (minimum)
Mean effective particle diameter
1. Rime ice condition
0 to 15 °F (18 to −9 °C)
Liquid—0.3 g/m3
15-25 microns
By test, analysis or combination of the two.
2. Glaze ice condition
20 to 30 °F (−7 to −1 °C)
Liquid—0.3 g/m3
15-25 microns
By test, analysis or combination of the two.
3. Large drop condition
15 to 30 °F (−9 to −1 °C)
Liquid—0.3 g/m3
100 microns (minimum)
By test, analysis or combination of the two.
(c) Supercharged reciprocating engines. For each engine having a supercharger to pressurize the air before it enters the carburetor, the heat rise in the air caused by that supercharging at any altitude may be utilized in determining compliance with paragraph (a) of this section if the heat rise utilized is that which will be available, automatically, for the applicable altitude and operating condition because of supercharging.
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-38, 41 FR 55467, Dec. 20, 1976; Amdt. 25-40, 42 FR 15043, Mar. 17, 1977; Amdt. 25-57, 49 FR 6849, Feb. 23, 1984; Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29785, July 20, 1990; Amdt. 25-140, 79 FR 65526, Nov. 4, 2014]