(a) Electrical system capacity. The required generating capacity and the number and kind of power sources must—
(1) Be determined by an electrical load analysis; and
(2) Meet the requirements of § 29.1309.
(b) Generating system. The generating system includes electrical power sources, main power busses, transmission cables, and associated control, regulation, and protective devices. It must be designed so that—
(1) Power sources function properly when independent and when connected in combination;
(2) No failure or malfunction of any power source can create a hazard or impair the ability of remaining sources to supply essential loads;
(3) The system voltage and frequency (as applicable) at the terminals of essential load equipment can be maintained within the limits for which the equipment is designed, during any probable operating condition;
(4) System transients due to switching, fault clearing, or other causes do not make essential loads inoperative, and do not cause a smoke or fire hazard;
(5) There are means accessible in flight to appropriate crewmembers for the individual and collective disconnection of the electrical power sources from the main bus; and
(6) There are means to indicate to appropriate crewmembers the generating system quantities essential for the safe operation of the system, such as the voltage and current supplied by each generator.
(c) External power. If provisions are made for connecting external power to the rotorcraft, and that external power can be electrically connected to equipment other than that used for engine starting, means must be provided to ensure that no external power supply having a reverse polarity, or a reverse phase sequence, can supply power to the rotorcraft's electrical system.
(d) Operation with the normal electrical power generating system inoperative.
(1) It must be shown by analysis, tests, or both, that the rotorcraft can be operated safely in VFR conditions for a period of not less than 5 minutes, with the normal electrical power generating system (electrical power sources excluding the battery) inoperative, with critical type fuel (from the standpoint of flameout and restart capability), and with the rotorcraft initially at the maximum certificated altitude. Parts of the electrical system may remain on if—
(i) A single malfunction, including a wire bundle or junction box fire, cannot result in loss of the part turned off and the part turned on;
(ii) The parts turned on are electrically and mechanically isolated from the parts turned off; and
(2) Additional requirements for Category A Rotorcraft.
(i) Unless it can be shown that the loss of the normal electrical power generating system is extremely improbable, an emergency electrical power system, independent of the normal electrical power generating system, must be provided, with sufficient capacity to power all systems necessary for continued safe flight and landing.
(ii) Failures, including junction box, control panel, or wire bundle fires, which would result in the loss of the normal and emergency systems, must be shown to be extremely improbable.
(iii) Systems necessary for immediate safety must continue to operate following the loss of the normal electrical power generating system, without the need for flight crew action.
(Secs. 313(a), 601, 603, 604, and 605 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (49 U.S.C. 1354(a), 1421, 1423, 1424, and 1425); and sec. 6(c), Dept. of Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. 1655(c)))
[Doc. No. 5084, 29 FR 16150, Dec. 3, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 29-14, 42 FR 36973, July 18, 1977; Amdt. 29-40, 61 FR 21908, May 10, 1996; Amdt. 29-42, 63 FR 43285, Aug. 12, 1998]