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§ 31.43
Fitting factor.
(a) A fitting factor of at least 1.15 must be used in the analysis of each fitting the strength of which is not proven by limit and ultimate load tests in which the actual stress conditions are simulated in the fitting and surrounding structure. This factor applies to all parts of the fitting, the means of attachment, and the bearing on the members joined.
(b) Each part with an integral fitting must be treated as a fitting up to the point where the section properties become typical of the member.
(c) The fitting factor need not be used if the joint design is made in accordance with approved practices and is based on comprehensive test data.