(a) The part of each control system from the pilot's controls to the control stops must be designed to withstand pilot forces of not less than—
(1) The forces specified in § 27.397; or
(2) If the system prevents the pilot from applying the limit pilot forces to the system, the maximum forces that the system allows the pilot to apply, but not less than 0.60 times the forces specified in § 27.397.
(b) Each primary control system, including its supporting structure, must be designed as follows:
(1) The system must withstand loads resulting from the limit pilot forces prescribed in § 27.397.
(2) Notwithstanding paragraph (b)(3) of this section, when power-operated actuator controls or power boost controls are used, the system must also withstand the loads resulting from the force output of each normally energized power device, including any single power boost or actuator system failure.
(3) If the system design or the normal operating loads are such that a part of the system cannot react to the limit pilot forces prescribed in § 27.397, that part of the system must be designed to withstand the maximum loads that can be obtained in normal operation. The minimum design loads must, in any case, provide a rugged system for service use, including consideration of fatigue, jamming, ground gusts, control inertia, and friction loads. In the absence of rational analysis, the design loads resulting from 0.60 of the specified limit pilot forces are acceptable minimum design loads.
(4) If operational loads may be exceeded through jamming, ground gusts, control inertia, or friction, the system must withstand the limit pilot forces specified in § 27.397, without yielding.
[Doc. No. 5074, 29 FR 15695, Nov. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 27-26, 55 FR 7999, Mar. 6, 1990]