(a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows:
(1) Each element of the hydraulic system must be designed to withstand, without detrimental, permanent deformation, any structural loads that may be imposed simultaneously with the maximum operating hydraulic loads.
(2) Each element of the hydraulic system must be designed to withstand pressures sufficiently greater than those prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section to show that the system will not rupture under service conditions.
(3) There must be means to indicate the pressure in each main hydraulic power system.
(4) There must be means to ensure that no pressure in any part of the system will exceed a safe limit above the maximum operating pressure of the system, and to prevent excessive pressures resulting from any fluid volumetric change in lines likely to remain closed long enough for such a change to take place. The possibility of detrimental transient (surge) pressures during operation must be considered.
(5) Each hydraulic line, fitting, and component must be installed and supported to prevent excessive vibration and to withstand inertia loads. Each element of the installation must be protected from abrasion, corrosion, and mechanical damage.
(6) Means for providing flexibility must be used to connect points, in a hydraulic fluid line, between which relative motion or differential vibration exists.
(b) Tests. Each element of the system must be tested to a proof pressure of 1.5 times the maximum pressure to which that element will be subjected in normal operation, without failure, malfunction, or detrimental deformation of any part of the system.