For the purpose of this part:
Great circle distance means the shortest distance between two points on the surface of the Earth.
Overflight means a flight through U.S.-controlled airspace that does not include a landing in or takeoff from the United States.
Overflight through Enroute airspace means an overflight through U.S.-controlled airspace where primarily radar-based air traffic services are provided.
Overflight through Oceanic airspace means an overflight through U.S.-controlled airspace where primarily procedural air traffic services are provided.
U.S.-controlled airspace means all airspace over the territory of the United States, extending 12 nautical miles from the coastline of U.S. territory; any airspace delegated to the United States for U.S. control by other countries or under a regional air navigation agreement; or any international airspace, or airspace of undetermined sovereignty, for which the United States has accepted responsibility for providing air traffic control services.
[Docket FAA-2015-3597, Amdt. 187-36, 81 FR 85853, Nov. 29, 2016]