Flight navigator and long-range navigation equipment.
(a) No certificate holder may operate an airplane outside the 48 conterminous States and the District of Columbia when its position cannot be reliably fixed for a period of more than 1 hour, without—
(1) A flight crewmember who holds a current flight navigator certificate; or
(2) Two independent, properly functioning, and approved long-range means of navigation which enable a reliable determination to be made of the position of the airplane by each pilot seated at that person's duty station.
(b) Operations where a flight navigator or long-range navigation equipment, or both, are required are specified in the operations specifications of the operator.