(a) The Simplified Directional Facility must perform in accordance with the following standards and practices:
(1) The radiation from the SDF antenna system must produce a composite field pattern which is amplitude modulated by a 90 Hz and a 150 Hz tone. The radiation field pattern must produce a course sector with the 90 Hz tone predominating on one side of the course and with the 150 Hz tone predominating on the opposite side.
(2) When an observer faces the SDF from the approach end of runway, the depth of modulation of the radio frequency carrier due to the 150 Hz tone must predominate on his right hand and that due to the 90 Hz tone must predominate on his left hand.
(3) All horizontal angles employed in specifying the SDF field patterns must originate from the center of the antenna system which provides the signals used in the front course sector.
(4) The SDF must operate on odd tenths or odd tenths plus a twentieth MHz within the frequency band 108.1 MHz to 111.95 MHz. The frequency tolerance of the radio frequency carrier must not exceed plus or minus 0.002 percent.
(5) The radiated emission from the SDF must be horizontally polarized. The vertically polarized component of the radiation on the course line must not exceed that which corresponds to an error one-twentieth of the course sector width when an aircraft is positioned on the course line and is in a roll attitude of 20° from the horizontal.
(6) The SDF must provide signals sufficient to allow satisfactory operation of a typical aircraft installation within the sector which extends from the center of the SDF antenna system to distances of 18 nautical miles within a plus or minus 10° sector and 10 nautical miles within the remainder of the coverage when alternative navigational facilities provide satisfactory coverage within the intermediate approach area. SDF signals must be receivable at the distances specified at and above a height of 1,000 feet above the elevation of the threshold, or the lowest altitude authorized for transition, whichever is higher. Such signals must be receivable, to the distances specified, up to a surface extending outward from the SDF antenna and inclined at 7° above the horizontal.
(7) The modulation tones must be phase-locked so that within the half course sector, the demodulated 90 Hz and 150 Hz wave forms pass through zero in the same direction within 20° of phase relative to the 150 Hz component, every half cycle of the combined 90 Hz and 150 Hz wave form. However, the phase need not be measured within the half course sector.
(8) The angle of convergence of the final approach course and the extended runway centerline must not exceed 30°. The final approach course must be aligned to intersect the extended runway centerline between points A1 and the runway threshold. When an operational advantage can be achieved, a final approach course that does not intersect the runway or that intersects it at a distance greater than point A1 from the threshold, may be established, if that course lies within 500 feet laterally of the extended runway centerline at a point 3,000 feet outward from the runway threshold. The mean course line must be maintained within ±10 percent of the course sector width.
(9) The nominal displacement sensitivity within the half course sector must be 50 microamperes/degree. The nominal course sector width must be 6°. When an operational advantage can be achieved, a nominal displacement sensitivity of 25 microamperes/degree may be established, with a nominal course sector width of 12° with proportional displacement sensitivity. The lateral displacement sensitivity must be adjusted and maintained within the limits of plus or minus 17 percent of the nominal value.
(10) The off-course (clearance) signal must increase at a substantially linear rate with respect to the angular displacement from the course line up to an angle on either side of the course line where 175 microamperes of deflection is obtained. From that angle to ±10°, the off-course deflection must not be less than 175 microamperes. From ±10° to ±35° the off-course deflection must not be less than 150 microamperes. With the course adjusted to cause any of several monitor alarm conditions, the aforementioned values of 175 microamperes in the sector 10° each side of course and 150 microamperes in the sector ±10° to ±35° may be reduced to 160 microamperes and 135 microamperes, respectively. These conditions must be met at a distance of 18 nautical miles from the SDF antenna within the sector 10° each side of course line and 10 nautical miles from the SDF antenna within the sector ±10° to ±35° each side of course line.
(11) The SDF may provide a ground-to-air radiotelephone communication channel to be operated simultaneously with the navigation and identification signals, if that operation does not interfere with the basic function. If a channel is provided, it must conform with the following standards:
(i) The channel must be on the same radio frequency carrier or carriers as used for the SDF function, and the radiation must be horizontally polarized. Where two carriers are modulated with speech, the relative phases of the modulations on the two carriers must avoid the occurrence of nulls within the coverage of the SDF.
(ii) On centerline, the peak modulation depth of the carrier or carriers due to the radiotelephone communications must not exceed 50 percent but must be adjusted so that the ratio of peak modulation depth due to the radiotelephone communications to that due to the identification signal is approximately 9:1.
(iii) The audio frequency characteristics of the radiotelephone channel must be flat to within 3 db relative to the level at 1,000 Hz over the range from 300 Hz to 3,000 Hz.
(12) (i) The SDF must provide for the simultaneous transmission of an identification signal, specific to the runway and approach direction, on the same radio frequency carrier or carriers as used for the SDF function. The transmission of the identification signal must not interfere in any way with the basic SDF function.
(ii) The identification signal must be produced by Class A2 modulation of the radio frequency carrier or carriers using a modulation tone of 1020 Hz within ±50 Hz. The depth of modulation must be between the limits of 5 and 15 percent except that, where a radiotelephone communication channel is provided, the depth of modulation must be adjusted so that the ratio of peak modulation depth due to radiotelephone communications to that due to the identification signal modulation is approximately 9:1. The emissions carrying the identification signal must be horizontally polarized.
(iii) The identification signal must employ the International Morse Code and consist of three letters.
(iv) The identification signal must be transmitted at a speed corresponding to approximately seven words per minute, and must be repeated at approximately equal intervals, not less than six times per minute. When SDF transmission is not available for operational use, including periods of removal of navigational components or during maintenance or test transmissions, the identification signal must be suppressed.
(b) It must be shown during ground inspection of the design features of the equipment that there will not be conditions that will allow unsafe operations because of component failure or deterioration.
(c) The monitor must be checked periodically during the in-service test evaluation period for calibration and stability. These tests, and ground checks of SDF radiation characteristics must be conducted in accordance with the maintenance manual required by § 171.115(c) and must meet the standards and tolerances contained in § 171.111(j).
(d) The monitor system must provide a warning to the designated control point(s) when any of the conditions of § 171.111(j) occur, within the time periods specified in that paragraph.
(e) Flight inspection to determine the adequacy of the facility's operational performance and compliance with applicable performance requirements must be conducted in accordance with the “U.S. Standard Flight Inspection Manual.” Tolerances contained in the U.S. Standard Flight Inspection Manual, section 217, must be complied with except as stated in paragraph (f) of this section.
(f) Flight inspection tolerances specified in section 217 of the “U.S. Standard Flight Inspection Manual” must be complied with except as follows:
(1) Course sector width. The nominal course sector width must be 6°. When an operational advantage can be achieved, a nominal course sector width of 12° may be established. Course sector width must be adjusted and maintained within the limits of ±17 percent of the nominal value.
(2) Course alignment. The mean course line must be adjusted and maintained within the limits of ±10 percent of the nominal course sector width.
(3) Course structure. Course deviations due to roughness, scalloping, or bends must be within the following limitations:
(i) Front course. (a) Course structure from 18 miles from runway threshold to Point A must not exceed ±40 microamperes;
(b) Point A to Point A-1—linear decrease from not more than ±40 microamperes at Point A to not more than ±20 microamperes at Point A-1;
(c) Point A-1 to Missed Approach Point—not more than ±20 microamperes;
(d) Monitor tolerances: width ±17 percent of nominal; alignment—±10 percent of nominal course sector width.
(ii) Back course. (a) Course structure 18 miles from runway threshold to 4 miles from runway threshold must not exceed ±40 microamperes. Four miles to 1 mile from R/W must not exceed ±40 microamperes decreasing to not more than ±20 microamperes, at a linear rate.
(b) Monitor tolerances: width—±17 percent of nominal; alignment—±10 percent of nominal course sector width.
[Doc. No. 10116, 35 FR 12711, Aug. 11, 1970, as amended by Amdt. 171-9, 38 FR 28557, Oct. 15, 1973]