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§ 27.621
Casting factors.
(a) General. The factors, tests, and inspections specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section must be applied in addition to those necessary to establish foundry quality control. The inspections must meet approved specifications. Paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section apply to structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid systems and do not support structural loads.
(b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section—
(1) Need not exceed 1.25 with respect to bearing stresses regardless of the method of inspection used; and
(2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor.
(c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure would preclude continued safe flight and landing of the rotorcraft or result in serious injury to any occupant, the following apply:
(1) Each critical casting must—
(i) Have a casting factor of not less than 1.25; and
(ii) Receive 100 percent inspection by visual, radiographic, and magnetic particle (for ferromagnetic materials) or penetrant (for nonferromagnetic materials) inspection methods or approved equivalent inspection methods.
(2) For each critical casting with a casting factor less than 1.50, three sample castings must be static tested and shown to meet—
(i) The strength requirements of § 27.305 at an ultimate load corresponding to a casting factor of 1.25; and
(ii) The deformation requirements of § 27.305 at a load of 1.15 times the limit load.
(d) Noncritical castings. For each casting other than those specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the following apply:
(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (d)(2) and (3) of this section, the casting factors and corresponding inspections must meet the following table:
Casting factor
2.0 or greater
100 percent visual.
Less than 2.0, greater than 1.5
100 percent visual, and magnetic particle (ferromagnetic materials), penetrant (nonferromagnetic materials), or approved equivalent inspection methods.
1.25 through 1.50
100 percent visual, and magnetic particle (ferromagnetic materials). penetrant (nonferromagnetic materials), and radiographic or approved equivalent inspection methods.
(2) The percentage of castings inspected by nonvisual methods may be reduced below that specified in paragraph (d)(1) of this section when an approved quality control procedure is established.
(3) For castings procured to a specification that guarantees the mechanical properties of the material in the casting and provides for demonstration of these properties by test of coupons cut from the castings on a sampling basis—
(i) A casting factor of 1.0 may be used; and
(ii) The castings must be inspected as provided in paragraph (d)(1) of this section for casting factors of “1.25 through 1.50” and tested under paragraph (c)(2) of this section.
[Doc. No. 5074, 29 FR 15695, Nov. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 27-34, 62 FR 46173, Aug. 29, 1997]