Fuel tanks: general.
(a) Each fuel tank must be able to withstand, without failure, the vibration, inertia, fluid, and structural loads that it may be subjected to in operation.
(b) Flexible fuel tank liners must be approved or must be shown to be suitable for the particular application.
(c) Integral fuel tanks must have facilities for interior inspection and repair.
(d) Fuel tanks must, so far as it is practicable, be designed, located, and installed so that no fuel is released in or near the fuselage, or near the engines, in quantities that would constitute a fire hazard in otherwise survivable emergency landing conditions, and—
(1) Fuel tanks must be able to resist rupture and retain fuel under ultimate hydrostatic design conditions in which the pressure P within the tank varies in accordance with the formula:
P = KρgL
P = fuel pressure at each point within the tank
ρ = typical fuel density
g = acceleration due to gravity
L = a reference distance between the point of pressure and the tank farthest boundary in the direction of loading
K = 4.5 for the forward loading condition for those parts of fuel tanks outside the fuselage pressure boundary
K = 9 for the forward loading condition for those parts of fuel tanks within the fuselage pressure boundary, or that form part of the fuselage pressure boundary
K = 1.5 for the aft loading condition
K = 3.0 for the inboard and outboard loading conditions for those parts of fuel tanks within the fuselage pressure boundary, or that form part of the fuselage pressure boundary
K = 1.5 for the inboard and outboard loading conditions for those parts of fuel tanks outside the fuselage pressure boundary
K = 6 for the downward loading condition
K = 3 for the upward loading condition
(2) For those parts of wing fuel tanks near the fuselage or near the engines, the greater of the fuel pressures resulting from paragraphs (d)(2)(i) or (d)(2)(ii) of this section must be used:
(i) The fuel pressures resulting from paragraph (d)(1) of this section, and
(ii) The lesser of the two following conditions:
(A) Fuel pressures resulting from the accelerations specified in § 25.561(b)(3) considering the fuel tank full of fuel at maximum fuel density. Fuel pressures based on the 9.0g forward acceleration may be calculated using the fuel static head equal to the streamwise local chord of the tank. For inboard and outboard conditions, an acceleration of 1.5g may be used in lieu of 3.0g as specified in § 25.561(b)(3).
(B) Fuel pressures resulting from the accelerations as specified in § 25.561(b)(3) considering a fuel volume beyond 85 percent of the maximum permissible volume in each tank using the static head associated with the 85 percent fuel level. A typical density of the appropriate fuel may be used. For inboard and outboard conditions, an acceleration of 1.5g may be used in lieu of 3.0g as specified in § 25.561(b)(3).
(3) Fuel tank internal barriers and baffles may be considered as solid boundaries if shown to be effective in limiting fuel flow.
(4) For each fuel tank and surrounding airframe structure, the effects of crushing and scraping actions with the ground must not cause the spillage of enough fuel, or generate temperatures that would constitute a fire hazard under the conditions specified in § 25.721(b).
(5) Fuel tank installations must be such that the tanks will not rupture as a result of the landing gear or an engine pylon or engine mount tearing away as specified in § 25.721(a) and (c).
(e) Fuel tank access covers must comply with the following criteria in order to avoid loss of hazardous quantities of fuel:
(1) All covers located in an area where experience or analysis indicates a strike is likely must be shown by analysis or tests to minimize penetration and deformation by tire fragments, low energy engine debris, or other likely debris.
(2) All covers must be fire resistant as defined in part 1 of this chapter.
(f) For pressurized fuel tanks, a means with fail-safe features must be provided to prevent the buildup of an excessive pressure difference between the inside and the outside of the tank.
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-40, 42 FR 15043, Mar. 17, 1977; Amdt. 25-69, 54 FR 40354, Sept. 29, 1989; Amdt. 25-139, 79 FR 59430, Oct. 2, 2014]